New ways to deal with packaging waste

Rubbish has become one of the biggest problems in industrial society. In Germany, many towns and cities have no idea where to get their residents’ rubbish. Incineration of refuse causes a series of problems because of the formation of some toxic gases and residual materials during combustion. However, the accumulation of rubbish, over time, can also become a bomb that poisons air or groundwater due to uncontrolled blending of various substances. In addition, many dump sites have also reached the limit of receiving capacity. Cities such as Hamburg, Germany, have also had to send warnings of junk emergency, because garbage dumps that previously received garbage from the city now refuse to receive new ones. The competent authorities are eager to find new waste dumps and urge residents to try to avoid generating waste.

The German federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Reactor Safety has also issued new laws. These laws will help reduce the burden of waste. At present, scientific research is making great efforts to find new processes that are environmentally friendly. There is no doubt that residents will incur higher waste disposal costs.

In order to prevent the emergence of a large number of packaging wastes and reduce the burden on waste dumps, a three-level packaging regulation has come into effect. The first two regulations stipulate that customers can leave all unnecessary packages in the store while shopping. The third-level regulations stipulate that consumers can return all packages, such as empty yogurt bottles, sandwiched chocolate candies, flattened empty toothpaste skins and plastic milk bags, to merchants after consumption. Everything is in the store's trash container. Labor costs for cleaning up rubbish are borne by merchants and shops, forcing the packaging department to abandon most of the packaging. This will be a big headache for businessmen, manufacturers and the packaging industry.

In fact, the loss of packaging business has long been predestined. In order to prevent this from happening, and to prevent the implementation of the third level of the packaging regulations, the industrial and commercial sectors should abandon the extra part of the packaging, and only pack the absolutely necessary packaging, at least in theory.

In addition, Germany has also set up a private waste removal agency, responsible for collecting packaging waste and recycling most of its useful materials. This is the so-called two-track system. The extra costs paid for this will ultimately be borne by the consumer.

Most of the markets in Chemnitz district are often under the weight of an unprecedented amount of household waste, while the neighboring Rohliits county is poised to deal with this problem. The reason is that the latter has implemented a very unique scheme. They also included nature in the garbage disposal process. They have turned most of their waste into humus. There are five hectares of waste dumps in the county. Among the household garbage in the rubbish dump, the only part that can be used is garden waste and kitchen rubbish. The rubbish was crushed and stacked into a 30-meter-long, 3-meter-long and 3-meter-high pile. Garbage is fermented in the cockles and the temperature is as high as 70°C. After 6-7 months, rubbish becomes a fragrant humus. To do this, residents need assistance. They must divide their own garbage into biological and waste waste, and then put it into the trash. Because it does not require the use of more expensive technologies and does not cost much, ecological treatment is quite common. Using this method can greatly extend the life of the dump site.

Disposal of waste through incineration is a process that has not been fully studied. The current understanding of the chemical composition and decomposition reactions of garbage has made great progress. For this reason, a waste incineration plant was put into operation. This device is mainly used for the basic process of incineration of household waste and its related links, as well as the treatment of the reaction products.

The highest goal of this project is to make the garbage incineration process harmless to the environment. In other words, it is necessary to control the flow of harmful substances and all substances, including waste gas, waste water, and solid waste. With the passage of time, a series of reform measures have been taken to achieve the best combustion process. For example, the flue gas is subjected to multi-stage purification and the separation of dry dust uses vortex dust collectors and fabric dust filters. The latter wet smoke treatment is performed in two stages. The task of the first stage is to cool the flue gas to a limit temperature of approximately 60°C by spraying water, and then use a special scrubber to remove the hydrogen chloride, mercury, and remaining fumes from the flue gas. The acid concentration can be adjusted automatically and can remain stable. In the second stage, sulfur dioxide in the flue gas is chemically added by the addition of a caustic soda solution to form sodium sulfate and precipitated. In addition, a high-power measurement technology has been developed to measure the chemical analysis of harmful gas components. Advanced measurement techniques for gases, liquids and solids are necessary prerequisites for evaluating the incineration process and ensuring the quality of flue gas purification.

The disadvantage of plastics is that even if the products made of plastics have already aged or have already been consumed, they can still be maintained for a long time. When they are burned, this throw-away plastic product will release toxic gases. Plastic products have long been plagued by rubbish dumps, even for less than a few centuries, at least for decades. Because plastics are hardly decomposed or decomposed very slowly. In order to better solve these problems, the German family completed a pilot project. They launched a shampoo for the market that is a plastic bottle made of a polymeric material that can be biodegraded. The purpose of this experiment is to promote innovation and promote the use of biodegradable packaging. In order to test how much the bottle was degraded during the usual smash time, people buried the bottle in a heap and observed the residue of the material. Fifteen weeks later, people opened the sifter and sieved it. Each sift was carefully searched. Of the 43 bottles with a total weight of 1,688 grams, only 260 grams of the remaining bottles were found. This is equivalent to 15.4%. There is also obvious microbial coverage and cryptolysis on the remaining residues, so it can be assumed that these residues will soon be decomposed into minerals. The new polymeric material, PHB, is produced using bioengineering. In the absence of nutrients, certain glucose-supplemented bacteria produce a storage material produced by PHB. As a bacterial product, PHB is contained in almost all ecological soils and in activated sludge. PHB is made of bacteria and it is also decomposed by bacteria. Even microorganisms that cannot produce PHB substances themselves can also decompose and use polymers.

Source: Shanghai Packaging

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